Cosmetics have been used for millennia to simulate or enhance the appearance of youthfulness, health, and beauty—eye makeup and scented creams were used by the ancient Egyptians as early as the 4th millennium BCE—but they have not always been viewed favorably. In the 19th century, for example, Queen Victoria publicly declared the use of makeup by anyone other than actors to be improper and vulgar. Today, however, the cosmetics industry is thriving. How much is spent on cosmetics each year?
Back in the day
After the October Revolution of 1917, Stalin began to emerge as a leader within the new Russian regime. He became one of Lenin's top aides and was appointed general secretary of the Communist Party in 1922. Although Lenin expressed misgivings about Stalin's use of power and recommended his removal, Stalin maintained his position and went on to take control of the USSR following Lenin's death. Born Joseph Dzhugashvili, he adopted the surname Stalin in 1913. What does the name mean?
Born on a day like today
Kohl was chancellor of West Germany from 1982 until 1990, when he became the first chancellor of a reunified Germany, serving in that capacity until 1998. The conservative chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) led his party to two convincing victories in West Germany in the 1980s. During his administration, West Germany prospered and became increasingly influential in world affairs. Kohl's reputation was severely tarnished by what financial scandal that came to light in 1999?