The Incoherence of the Philosophers is a landmark 11th-century text by al-Ghazali of the rational-based Asharite school of Muslim theology. In it, he criticizes the Avicennian school of Islamic philosophy, accusing its followers of being irreligious. Among al-Ghazali's 20 charges against them is their inability to prove the existence of God and inability to prove the impossibility of the existence of two gods. Who refuted al-Ghazali's views with The Incoherence of the Incoherence?
Back in the day
The 1556 Shaanxi Earthquake in China is the deadliest earthquake on record, having killed approximately 830,000 people and destroyed an area 520 miles (837 km) wide. According to Chinese annals, mountains moved and rivers changed course due to the massive quake, which affected places more than 200 miles (322 km) from the epicenter. Aftershocks continued for months. In addition to the quake's force—its magnitude is estimated at 8.0—the high death toll is attributed to what other factors?
Born on a day like today
After teaching chemistry because jobs for female researchers were then scarce, Elion got work as an assistant at a drug company and went on to become a pioneering US pharmacologist. With George Hitchings, she developed treatments for leukemia, autoimmune disorders, urinary tract infections, gout, malaria, and viral herpes. Although Nobel Prizes are rarely awarded to drug company employees, the duo shared in the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology. To what did Elion attribute her interest in science?