This test is used to determine whether an animal recognizes itself in a mirror—an indicator of self-awareness. It was developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup, Jr., who was inspired by Darwin's account of an encounter with a captive orangutan that saw itself in a mirror and seemed to show recognition. Gallup refined the test by placing marks on his subjects and then observing their responses to the marks upon seeing their reflections. Which animals typically pass the test, and which fail?
Back in the day
Hirohito was the longest reigning Japanese monarch, ruling from 1926 to 1989. During his reign, militaristic Japan entered World War II and bombed Pearl Harbor. After the US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, Hirohito pushed for surrender. He then broke the precedent of imperial silence by making a national radio broadcast to announce Japan's surrender. After World War II, Hirohito changed the importance of the monarchy when he renounced what?
Born on a day like today
An Indian Muslim politician, Jinnah was the founder and first governor-general of Pakistan. Early in his career, he fervently supported the Indian National Congress and advocated Hindu-Muslim unity, but he eventually became convinced that a Muslim nation distinct from Hindu India was needed to protect Muslim interests in the dying days of the British Raj. Jinnah's firm stand and widespread Hindu-Muslim riots forced the issue, and Pakistan was created in 1947. How long did he lead the new nation?