Though they appear to take flight, most "flying fish"—found worldwide in warm waters—actually only jump out of the water and then glide above its surface with their enlarged fins. This unusual behavior is primarily a way to escape predators, and the strongest fliers can travel as much as 600 feet (180 m) in a single glide. The characin of the Amazon basin, however, is the rare flying fish that achieves true flight by buzzing its winglike fins. What country is nicknamed "the land of flying fish"?
Henry David Thoreau
Back in the day
The Doctors' Trial was the first of 12 post-World War II trials collectively called the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials," which the US held in its occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany. Of the 23 defendants, 20 were medical doctors, and they faced charges for war crimes that included experimenting on human subjects without their consent. The Nuremberg Code was thus established to protect the rights of humans participating in medical research. How many of the defendants received death sentences?
Born on a day like today
A math professor, Hopper joined the US Navy during World War II. She was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project at Harvard, where she worked on the first fully automatic calculator, the Mark 1. Made of 765,000 parts and using typewriters for output, it sounded, she said, like a thousand knitting needles. She later helped develop UNIVAC I—the first US commercial electronic computer—and high-level programming languages. What computer term did she popularize and possibly coin?