Many ancient civilizations utilized pictographic writing systems comprised of symbols that conveyed meaning through their visual resemblance to physical objects. Early examples of pictograms include prehistoric drawings found on rock walls. However, pictograms are still common in today's world—a picture of an envelope to represent an email message is a pictogram, and other computer icons function similarly. What are some other common pictograms in modern society?
Back in the day
Tensions between Israel and the surrounding Arab states have existed since the establishment of the former in 1948 and have come to a head in several armed conflicts over the years. In 1973, on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur—which fell during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan—Egyptian troops attacked Israel across the Suez Canal while Syrian forces advanced from the north. Though caught off guard, Israel managed to repel the attacks. Why might attacking on this day have been a tactical mistake?
Born on a day like today
The last absolute monarch of Denmark, if only for the first year of his reign, Frederick VII faced popular demonstrations calling for political reforms almost as soon as he ascended the throne. He acceded to many of the demands, appointing a liberal ministry, renouncing absolute rule, and adopting a representative government, but he rejected a proposal to cede a portion of Schleswig to Prussia. His position on this issue eventually led to war with Prussia. What was the popular king's motto?