Doctor to Roman gladiators and emperors, Galen was a Greek physician in the 2nd century CE whose authority on medicine was virtually undisputed until the 16th century. Credited with some 500 treatises, Galen added greatly to the knowledge of anatomy and physiology. Based on animal experiments, he described cranial nerves and heart valves and showed that arteries carry blood, not air. However, in extending his findings to human anatomy, he was often in error. What misconceptions did he have?
Back in the day
After delivering parts for the first atomic bomb to a US base in the Pacific, the USS Indianapolis was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. It sank in 12 minutes. Roughly 300 sailors were killed in the initial attack, and the remaining 900 faced exposure, dehydration, and shark attacks while awaiting rescue. The US Navy only learned of the sinking four days later, when survivors were spotted by a pilot on patrol. In the end, only 316 survived. Why was the ship's captain court-martialed?
Born on a day like today
Ford was a prominent American industrialist and innovator of mass production via the assembly line. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and made car ownership affordable to many. Though controversial, Ford was undeniably one of the most influential men of the 20th century. He instituted an eight-hour workday in his factories and paid his workers relatively well but also strenuously opposed labor unions. Whom did he employ to intimidate union organizers?