In competitive free-diving—also called competitive apnea—individuals attempt to reach extreme depths or distances underwater on a single breath without using breathing equipment. Some events allow the use of fins or weights, while others do not. Because a lack of oxygen can result in a loss of consciousness, free-diving requires intense training and supervision. What is the current record for timed underwater breath-holding as recognized by the International Association for Development of Apnea?
Back in the day
In Roman Catholicism, papal infallibility is the doctrine that, under certain conditions, the pope cannot err when teaching in matters of faith or morals. It is a centuries-old idea based on the belief that the church, entrusted with the mission of Jesus, will be guided by the Holy Spirit. It has been a matter of controversy, even among Catholic theologians, ever since 1870, when the First Vatican Council first listed the conditions under which popes are infallible. What are they?
Born on a day like today
Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who, in 1902, shared the second Nobel Prize in Physics. A pioneer in formulating the relations between electricity, magnetism, and light, he was one of the first people to postulate the existence of electrons. He developed many of the concepts and equations upon which Einstein based his special theory of relativity, which was originally called the Lorentz-Einstein theory. He also did critical work for the Dutch government on what unprecedented engineering project?