A public house—or pub—is a centuries-old type of drinking establishment, so named because early English common law declared inns and taverns to be public houses obligated to receive travelers willing to pay for food, drink, and lodging. However, pubs did not cater exclusively to travelers. They also served as communal centers where locals could meet and gossip, and so became an enduring part of British culture. How did an 18th-century crackdown on alcohol consumption actually create more pubs?
Back in the day
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private philanthropic organization established by John D. Rockefeller to promote "the well-being of mankind throughout the world." Its first grant was issued to the American Red Cross, and over the years, it has donated more than $14 billion in grants to fund medical research, education, agriculture, and work in a number of other fields. Before and during WWII, it worked to bring scholars and artists persecuted by the Nazis to the US. Who was saved in this way?
Born on a day like today
Charles IV was a 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor, German king, and king of Bohemia. He was educated at the French court and fought the English at Crécy, where the heroic death of his father, John of Luxemburg, made him king of Bohemia. Pope Clement VI, to whom he had promised far-reaching concessions, helped secure his election as anti-king to Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. After the death of Louis in 1347, Charles claimed the crown. He is considered the father of what modern-day nation?