Pattens are various types of wooden-soled footwear, such as sandals or clogs, worn by men and women of the Middle Ages to increase their height or to keep their feet out of the mud or dirt of the street. In use until the early 20th century, pattens were worn outdoors over normal shoes and held in place by leather or cloth bands. Their name is derived from the Middle English word patin, which may come from the Old French word pate, meaning what?
Back in the day
The first Oktoberfest was held as a horse race celebrating the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to Princess Therese von Saxony-Hildburghausen. In the years that followed, the race was combined with the state agricultural fair, and food and drink were offered. Since that time the 16-day festival has become, above all else, a celebration of German beer, drawing more than five million attendees annually. How many millions of liters of beer did Oktoberfest attendees consume in 2007?
Born on a day like today
Born into an observant Jewish family, Stein converted to Christianity in 1922. After studying philosophy, she became a nun in 1934. She moved from Germany to the Netherlands to avoid Nazi persecution, but in 1942 she was arrested because of her Jewish heritage. She was sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp and died in the gas chamber that year. She was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1998, and is also known as Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. With what miracles is Stein credited?