Saladin was a Muslim warrior of Kurdish descent and the first Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria. He was the nemesis of the Crusaders but nevertheless became a celebrated figure in Europe for his chivalrous ways. He united Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, and Palestine, and his reputation as a virtuous but firm ruler rekindled Muslim resistance to the Crusades. In 1187, he defeated the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, shocking Europe and prompting the Third Crusade, which pitted him against whom?
Back in the day
In the final year of his life, prolific composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart produced the opera Die Zauberflöte—The Magic Flute—featuring a libretto by the actor Emmanuel Schikaneder. The work is considered a singspiel—an opera in German that contains spoken dialogue and is usually comic in tone. Mozart brought this form of light musical entertainment to a height of lyrical and symbolic art. The Magic Flute is said to contain what prominent Masonic elements and symbolism?
Born on a day like today
After receiving a doctorate in physics in Germany in 1906, Geiger traveled to England, where he assisted chemist Ernest Rutherford. In 1908, they designed an instrument to detect and count alpha particles, positively charged ionizing particles produced by radioactive decay. Two decades later, Geiger developed the sensitive, portable radiation counter that now bears his name. During World War II, he was a member of the Uranium Club, a group of German scientists who attempted to develop what?