Born in 1835 in the Punjab region of India, Ahmad was the founder of the messianic movement known as Ahmadiyya. In his Barahin-i Ahmadiyya, he announced that he had received a divine revelation and declared himself the Mahdi and the promised Messiah of Islam. His doctrine, incorporating Indian, Sufi, Islamic, and Western elements, attempted to revitalize Islam in the face of the British Raj, Protestant Christianity, and resurgent Hinduism. What was Ahmad's stance on jihad?
Back in the day
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh was part of the War of Rough Wooing, the ruthless war launched by Henry VIII against Scotland to force a marriage between Mary Queen of Scots and his son, the future Edward VI. The first "modern" battle to be fought in the British Isles and the last pitched battle between the English and Scottish royal armies, it resulted in a catastrophic defeat for the Scots, who came to call it Black Saturday. What type of bombardment was used for the first time during the battle?
Born on a day like today
Known as "the English Hippocrates," Sydenham was a physician who advocated direct observation instead of theorizing to determine the nature of disease. His conceptions of the causes and treatments of epidemics and his classic descriptions of gout, smallpox, malaria, and other maladies established him as a founder of modern clinical medicine and epidemiology. He introduced laudanum as a medication, helped popularize the use of quinine in treating malaria, and described what "dancing" disease?