The Villa of the Papyri, as it is now known, was a private home owned by Julius Caesar's father-in-law in the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum. In 79 CE, the eruption of Vesuvius covered the entire city with volcanic ash, including the villa, which was situated halfway up the volcano's slope. Its remains were excavated in the 18th century, and therein was found a library containing 1,785 carbonized papyrus scrolls, many of them expounding the ideas of what school of philosophy?
Back in the day
The New York Draft Riots, in which more than 100 civilians were killed, were the largest civil insurrection in US history after the Civil War. The rioters were mainly working-class men who were angry because, for a $300 fee, the wealthy could buy their way out of the Civil War draft. The rioters burned draft headquarters and other buildings. Mobs also attacked African Americans, whom they blamed for the war. The riots are portrayed in an alternate-history novel co-written by what politician?
Born on a day like today
Caesar was a Roman general and statesman who formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus and later precipitated the Roman Civil War, defeating Pompey and becoming dictator for life. His dictatorial powers, however, inspired great resentment. He was in the midst of launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated on the Ides of March by conspirators led by Cassius and Brutus. Caesar's commentaries on what wars are considered classic military documents?