The Mali Empire flourished in West Africa between the 13th and 16th centuries. A trading empire, it developed from the upper Niger River state of Kangaba, whose inhabitants were middlemen in the gold trade in ancient Ghana. It expanded for a few centuries but eventually outgrew its political and military strength, and many of its subject areas revolted. Which Mali ruler distributed so much gold during his pilgrimage to Mecca that the metal was devalued in Egypt for more than a decade?
Back in the day
Visited by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, Guam was formally claimed by Spain in 1565 and remained under Spanish control until 1898, when it was taken by the US in the Spanish-American War. Because the Spanish garrison on the island had no knowledge of the war, the US sent a single Navy cruiser, the USS Charleston, and was able to capture Guam without a fight. At the end of the war, Guam was officially ceded to the US under the Treaty of Paris. How many Spanish soldiers were captured on Guam?
Born on a day like today
Hirschfeld was an American graphic artist and caricaturist who was famous for his witty, perceptive, and joyful caricatures of theater celebrities and other public personalities. After becoming a theater correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune, he worked for The New York Times, where many of his caricatures appeared. Hirschfeld also wrote and illustrated several books. Beginning in 1945, Hirschfeld concealed what in almost every drawing that he made?