Launched by Pope Innocent III in 1202, the Fourth Crusade was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Instead, the crusaders were persuaded to help Alexius IV Angelus help his father regain the Byzantine throne, in exchange for money and aid on their mission. Realizing the promise would not be kept, the crusaders ruthlessly sacked the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, for three days. Did they ever make it to Palestine?
Back in the day
In 1763, immediately after the French and Indian Wars, several Native American tribes allied against the British in an uprising that became known as Pontiac's Rebellion, after the Ottawa leader Pontiac. They captured and destroyed many British outposts. On the day of the surprise attack on Fort Michilimackinac, the Ojibwas, or Chippewas, approached the fort without arousing suspicion among the watching British soldiers by staging a game of baaga'adowe—the precursor of what modern sport?
Born on a day like today
Elgar was an English composer whose oratorio The Dream of Gerontius is considered one of the finest examples of English choral music in history. He received his training from his father and succeeded him as organist of St. George's Church, Worcester, in 1885. He earned recognition for his Imperial March, composed in 1897 for Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee, and for his Enigma Variations. His most popular works are his five marches, the first of which is what famous song?