Also called the Golenischev Mathematical Papyrus, after the Russian Egyptologist who purchased it in Thebes during the late 19th century, the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus is one of the oldest known Egyptian mathematical papyri. The 18-foot- (5.5-meter-) long papyrus likely dates to the 13th dynasty of Egypt, which began around 1773 BCE and ended after 1650 BCE. It contains 25 mathematical problems and solutions, many of which feature a variable indicating the strength of what alcoholic beverage?
Back in the day
During the Farhud, the pogrom carried out against the Jewish population of Baghdad after the fall of the short-lived pro-Nazi government of Rashid Ali, rioters killed about 200 Jews and injured hundreds more. It took place during the Jewish holiday of Shavuot, and, according to some, marked a turning point for Iraq's 150,000 Jews, who were thereafter targeted for persecution. Jews had lived in Iraq since about 600 BCE, but by 1951, 80% had left. How many Jews are thought to live in Baghdad now?
Born on a day like today
After commanding a Union regiment in the American Civil War, Harlan served as a state attorney general before being appointed to the Supreme Court by President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877. During his tenure, which lasted until his death in 1911, he became the court's outstanding liberal justice and one of the most forceful dissenters in its history. His best-known dissenting opinion came in Plessy v. Ferguson, in which the Supreme Court established what infamous doctrine?