Homo sapiens began migrating out of Africa and across Eurasia and Australia about 70,000 years ago. These first human migrations were caused by changing climate, landscape, and food supply. Contemporary migration is predominantly economically motivated and the product of wide income disparities between different countries. In 2010, the number of international migrants was estimated at 214 million. If this number continues to grow at the same pace, it could reach how many million by 2050?
E. M. Forster
Back in the day
The uninhabited island of St. Helena was discovered by Portuguese navigator João da Nova in the eastern South Atlantic, 1,200 mi (1,931 km) west of Africa. It became a port of call for ships sailing between Europe and the East Indies and was annexed by the British East India Company in 1659. Because of the island's remoteness, when the British exiled Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815, he was sent there. It became a British crown colony in 1834, but its importance declined after what was opened in 1869?
Born on a day like today
Fry was an English prison reformer as well as an advocate of higher nursing standards and the education of working women. From 1813, she worked untiringly to improve the conditions for women in Newgate prison, advocating separation of the sexes, employment, and religious training. Her successful methods at Newgate impressed the government and were tried in other prisons. She also helped the homeless, founding soup kitchens and shelters in London. On what unit of currency is Fry pictured?