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Grand Opening of New York City's Carnegie Hall

Endowed by the industrialist Andrew Carnegie, Carnegie Hall was designed in a Neo-Italian Renaissance style by architect William Burnet Tuthill. It opened in 1891, with Pyotr Tchaikovsky as guest of honor. Threatened by destruction in the late 1950s, it was saved by a public outcry and purchased by the city. It was extensively renovated from 1982 to 1986. Admired for its beauty and its superb acoustics, it has long been the most famous concert hall in the US. What is its seating capacity?

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Aeolipile

An aeolipile is a device illustrating the reactive forces of a gas jet. It is usually a spherical vessel mounted so as to rotate and equipped with angled exit pipes from which steam can escape. The device is also known as the Hero engine, after Hero of Alexandria, the Greek mathematician who invented it in the first century. The world's first steam engine, the aeolipile was, in Hero's design, a forerunner of the jet engine. Its name derives from a term meaning "ball of Aeolus." Who was Aeolus?

Born on a day like today

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Eugénia María de Montijo de Guzmán

The daughter of a Spanish noble, Eugénia married Napoleon III in 1853 and became the empress of France. She took an active part in the politics of the Second Empire, acting as regent when Napoleon was at war. She also encouraged French opposition to a Prussian candidate for the Spanish throne in the controversy that precipitated the Franco-Prussian War. Deposed after Napoleon's capture at Sedan, she fled and settled in England. Why was Eugénia's marriage to Napoleon controversial?

Last updated on Thursday, 5th May 2011

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