Genetic fingerprinting is a forensic identification technique that enables nearly unmistakable discrimination between individuals and is often used in criminal and paternity cases. The process involves isolating DNA from skin, hair, blood, or semen cells and comparing genetic information at key positions on the chromosomes. Theoretically, the risk of a false match is minute, but laboratory errors can skew results. What other factors should be considered when evaluating DNA evidence?
Back in the day
Anthracite is a compact variety of coal that was first burned as a residential heating fuel in the US by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. It differs from wood in that it needs a draft from below. By burning it on an open grate in a fireplace, Fell proved that it could be a viable heating fuel. Fell's experiment took place 18 years after anthracite coal was said to have been discovered in Pennsylvania by hunter Necho Allen. According to legend, how did Allen "discover" anthracite?
Born on a day like today
Gibbs was an American mathematical physicist whose contributions to physical chemistry and thermodynamics have had a profound effect on industry, notably in the production of ammonia. He formulated the concept of chemical potential, and, in mathematics, was influential in developing vector analysis. Gibbs also contributed to crystallography, the determination of planetary and cometary orbits, and electromagnetic theory. His doctorate was the first granted in the US for what field?