" A promise must never be broken. "
Alexander Hamilton

Back in the day


Anthracite Coal First Burned as Residential Heating Fuel

Anthracite is a compact variety of coal that was first burned as a residential heating fuel in the US by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. It differs from wood in that it needs a draft from below. By burning it on an open grate in a fireplace, Fell proved that it could be a viable heating fuel. Fell's experiment took place 18 years after anthracite coal was said to have been discovered in Pennsylvania by hunter Necho Allen. According to legend, how did Allen "discover" anthracite?



Genetic Fingerprinting

Genetic fingerprinting is a forensic identification technique that enables nearly unmistakable discrimination between individuals and is often used in criminal and paternity cases. The process involves isolating DNA from skin, hair, blood, or semen cells and comparing genetic information at key positions on the chromosomes. Theoretically, the risk of a false match is minute, but laboratory errors can skew results. What other factors should be considered when evaluating DNA evidence?

Born on a day like today


Josiah Willard Gibbs

Gibbs was an American mathematical physicist whose contributions to physical chemistry and thermodynamics have had a profound effect on industry, notably in the production of ammonia. He formulated the concept of chemical potential, and, in mathematics, was influential in developing vector analysis. Gibbs also contributed to crystallography, the determination of planetary and cometary orbits, and electromagnetic theory. His doctorate was the first granted in the US for what field?

Last updated on Friday, 11th February 2011

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