Practically every machine in existence incorporates one or more simple machines, elementary mechanical devices that change the magnitude or the direction of a force. These include the lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw. The idea of the "simple machine" originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BCE, but it was not until 1600 that scientists showed that simple machines only transform energy and do not create it. Who figured this out?
Back in the day
In 1958, a British European Airways airliner carrying the Manchester United soccer team along with a number of staff members, supporters, and journalists crashed on its third attempt to take off from a slush-covered runway at Germany's Munich-Riem airport. Twenty-three of the 44 passengers on board died in the disaster. There was speculation that the club would have to fold, but the threadbare team completed the season, and a rebuilt Manchester United won the European cup in what year?
Born on a day like today
Braun, a saleswoman in the shop of Adolf Hitler's photographer, became Hitler's mistress in the 1930s. Although she lived in homes provided by Hitler throughout their courtship—first in a house in Munich and later in his Berchtesgaden chalet—he never allowed her to be seen in public with him. In 1945, with the Allies drawing ever closer, she joined him in Berlin against his orders. In recognition of her loyalty, he married her in a civil ceremony in their bunker. What happened the next day?