Frost flowers form when thin layers of ice are extruded from long-stemmed plants in autumn or early winter and freeze. They appear along cracks in plant stems created when sap is frozen and expands. Water is continually drawn through the cracks due to capillary action and freezes upon contact with air, curling into lovely petal-like shapes. A rare sight, frost flowers are most often observed in shaded areas in the early morning and usually melt when exposed to sunlight. What is a "frost beard"?
Back in the day
Born in Russia, Mayer immigrated to Canada and then the US with his family and began working in his father's scrap-iron business at 14. At 23, he bought a small nickelodeon in Massachusetts, and by the time he reached his mid-30s, he owned New England's largest movie theater chain. In 1925, he merged his film production company with others to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, which, under his leadership, became Hollywood's most prestigious studio. What scandals was Mayer involved in during his career?
Born on a day like today
With Karl Marx, Engels was one of the founders of modern Communism. After forming a partnership to promote the socialist movement, the two organized revolutionary movements and collaborated on several works, most notably the Communist Manifesto. Though Marx's personality has overshadowed that of Engels, Engels served as the foremost authority on Marx and Marxism after Marx's death in 1883. Despite his criticism of capitalism, Engels supported Marx's publications by doing what?