In medieval Europe, incessant private warfare brought about a permanent military class, and the institution of knighthood was well established by the 10th century. After 1100, military tenure was generally subject to the law of primogeniture, which resulted in a class of landless knights, who formed the great military orders of knighthood at the time of the Crusades, including the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitalers. In modern Britain, women who are knighted are addressed as what?
Back in the day
In 1938, using the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris as a pretext, Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels urged violent reprisals against Jews. The resulting pogrom left 91 Jews dead and hundreds injured. Some 30,000 Jewish males were arrested and taken to concentration camps, and thousands of Jewish-owned businesses and synagogues were destroyed. The incident marked a major escalation in the Nazi program of Jewish persecution, foreshadowing the Holocaust. Why is it called Kristallnacht?
Born on a day like today
Lamarr was an Austrian-American actress known primarily for her beauty and her successful film career—including her role as Delilah in Cecil B. DeMille's Samson and Delilah. However, she also co-invented an early form of spread spectrum encoding—intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder to detect or jam—in the 1940s with her neighbor, composer George Antheil. They patented the technology in 1942, but it did not come into use until later. Who introduced Lamarr to military technology?