Regarded by European alchemists as the foundation of their craft, the Emerald Tablet is a short, cryptic text that purportedly reveals the secret of the primordial substance and its transmutations. Even esteemed scientists such as Sir Isaac Newton have published translations of the text, which claims Hermes Trismegistus, a legendary sage or god variously identified with the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek god Hermes, as its author. What is the oldest documentable source for this text?
Back in the day
In the 1840s, a group of young Irish idealists began to promote Irish cultural nationalism. Known as Young Irelanders, they eventually sought revolution and, in 1848, organized a disastrous rebellion in Tipperary led by William Smith O'Brien and Thomas Meagher. Sometimes called the Famine Rebellion of 1848—since it took place during the Great Irish Famine—the Young Irelander Rebellion led to the ultimate failure of the movement. What events likely inspired the Young Irelanders to revolt?
Born on a day like today
An ardent socialist in his youth, Mussolini turned nationalist after serving with the Italian army in WWI. He formed a fascist political group in 1919 and was soon appointed prime minister, becoming the youngest in Italian history. Supported by Adolf Hitler, Mussolini declared war on the Allies in 1940. As German defenses in Italy collapsed, Mussolini tried to escape to Austria but was captured and executed by Italian partisans. During his rule, he was known as Il Duce, which means what?