A typically nonviolent and collective means of forcing government concessions, civil disobedience has been used by nationalist movements in Africa and India, the US civil rights movement, and labor and antiwar movements in many countries. Perhaps the most influential exposition of the philosophy behind civil disobedience can be found in American author and naturalist Henry David Thoreau's 1849 essay Civil Disobedience, which argues that citizens should break laws that conflict with what?
Back in the day
The Pulitzer Prizes—prestigious awards presented annually by Columbia University for achievements in American journalism, literature, and music—were created by journalist and publisher Joseph Pulitzer, whose will funded the establishment of Columbia's school of journalism as well as the prizes. Ironically, Columbia had rejected donation offers from Pulitzer during his lifetime because, as one of the originators of yellow journalism, he was regarded as unscrupulous. What do prizewinners receive?
Born on a day like today
Sillanpää was Finland's first female minister and a key figure in the workers' movement. One of nine children born to peasants during Finland's famine years, Sillanpää entered the workforce at age 12, gaining employment at a cotton factory. She later campaigned for the rights of working women and was one of the 19 women elected in 1907 to the parliament of Finland, where she served for a total of 38 years. What occupation did Sillanpää have during much of her tenure in parliament?