Dated to between 988 and 1030 CE and unearthed in Russia in July 2000, the Novgorod Codex is a collection of three wooden tablets containing a total of four wax pages on which a few Biblical psalms are written. Preserving the artifact required that the wax and wood be separated, a process that revealed in the wood traces of thousands of texts written over several decades. Researchers have painstakingly deciphered small portions of the underlying texts. What had been previously written on it?
Back in the day
Taking its name from the contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei—German for "Secret State Police"—the Gestapo was the secret police force of Nazi Germany. Created in 1933 by Hermann Goring, the Gestapo operated without civil restraints or judicial oversight, brutally suppressing partisan activities in occupied territories and arresting thousands of Jews, leftists, and other Nazi "enemies," many of whom were sent to concentration camps. How many Gestapo members were there during World War II?
Born on a day like today
Ieoh Ming Pei, better known as I. M. Pei, is a Pritzker Prize-winning, Chinese-born American architect whose buildings can be seen the world over. In his works, structure and environment are carefully integrated with precise geometric design to create crisp, clear, sculptural edifices. He is known for his sensuous use of materials like marble, concrete, and especially glass—which he used in his pioneering all-glass curtain walls. What controversial Parisian structure did Pei design in the 1980s?