In the early 19th century, a sharp rise in the number of anatomy schools in Scotland was followed by a marked increase in the incidence of grave robbing, which filled the growing need for dissection subjects. Revelations about the practice led to public outrage, and, around 1816, to the invention of mortsafes—heavy, iron contraptions placed over the graves of the newly deceased to deter body snatchers. What was one of the only ways these anatomy schools could obtain cadavers legitimately?
Back in the day
Frederick Barbarossa was elected King of Germany in 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1155. Shortly thereafter, an apparent misunderstanding with Pope Adrian IV led Frederick to mount military operations against Italy and install an antipope in opposition to Adrian's successor. The schism continued for some time, but Frederick and the Catholic pontiff ultimately reconciled. According to scholars, what factors may have contributed to Frederick's drowning death in the shallow Saleph River?
Born on a day like today
Henry the Navigator, a Portuguese prince, figured strongly in Portugal's early development as a colonial empire. Though not a navigator himself, Henry was a great patron of exploration and is credited with establishing a school for navigators and encouraging the study of navigational instruments and cartography. Under his patronage, Portuguese sailors explored and colonized Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Azores. How did Henry justify Portugal's involvement in the African slave trade?