In the early 20th century, Germany claimed territory in what is now Namibia and colonized the land as German South-West Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Germans quashed rebellions by the native Herero and Nama tribes by driving them into the desert. Approximately 65,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama—80 percent and 50 percent of their populations, respectively—died in what is perhaps the earliest attempt at genocide in the 20th century. When did Germany officially apologize for the massacre?
William Makepeace Thackeray
Back in the day
Traditionally considered the successor state of the Russian Empire, the USSR was established in 1922 and unified the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics under one government. The first state to be based on Marxist socialism, the USSR became a world superpower that rivaled the US in domination of global affairs until its collapse and dissolution in 1991. In what year were diplomatic relations between the US and USSR first established?
Born on a day like today
Tojo's accession as the 40th prime minister of Japan in 1941 marked the final triumph of the military faction that advocated war with the US and Great Britain. As the most powerful leader in the government during WWII, he approved the attack on Pearl Harbor and pushed the Japanese offensive in China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Tojo resigned after a string of military failures and later attempted suicide. He was arrested by the Allies and tried, convicted, and executed for what war crimes?