" We have forty million reasons for failure, but not a single excuse. "
Rudyard Kipling

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Japan's Meiji Constitution Goes into Effect

The Imperial, or Meiji, Constitution was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 1890 until 1947. Enacted after the Meiji Restoration, it provided for a form of constitutional monarchy based on the Prussian model. The constitution allowed the active Emperor to wield considerable political power, but the control was to be shared with an elected assembly. What did Ito Hirobumi, who was charged with drafting Japan's constitution, think of the different Western constitutions that he reviewed?




Aztlán is the legendary ancestral home of the Nahua peoples, a major Mesoamerican group that includes the Aztec. According to Aztec legend, a southward migration from Aztlán—often described as a paradise—that began around 830 CE led to the founding of seven major city-states in central Mexico. Though scholars disagree about whether Aztlán has any real historical component, both Spanish conquistadors and modern archaeologists have attempted to identify its exact location. What are some options?

Born on a day like today


Jacques Chirac

Chirac, a French political leader, was president of France from 1995 to 2007, served twice as prime minister, and was the mayor of Paris for nearly two decades. As president, he sought to reduce unemployment, cut the deficit, and strengthen ties with Germany. Chirac played a critical role in the development of the European Union, and he has been an outspoken critic of the war in Iraq. In 2002, he survived an assassination attempt during celebrations of what French national holiday?

Last updated on Sunday, 29th November 2009

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