Begun in 1916, the Basmachi Revolt was a largely Turkic uprising against Russian rule in Central Asia that developed into a lengthy civil war between the Soviets and the rebels, who were called Basmachi, or "bandits," a deliberately pejorative term. The Soviet strategy of simultaneously acceding to ethnic demands and ruthlessly pursuing the guerrillas successfully quelled the revolt by the 1930s. How did the Soviets counter British and Turkish aid to the Basmachi?
Back in the day
Believing that Asia could be reached by traveling westward, Columbus's three-ship expedition set sail from Palos, Spain, in 1492. After a stop at the Canary Islands, Columbus sailed due west, turning in a more southerly direction after about a month at sea. Shortly thereafter, Columbus quelled a small mutiny, and, on October 12, landed at an island in the Bahamas. Columbus also explored nearby Cuba and Hispaniola before returning to Spain. How many ships set sail with his second expedition?
Born on a day like today
Crowley was a 20th century English occultist who developed a religious philosophy called Thelema. As a young adult, he was a member of the influential occult society the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn but later turned toward Buddhism and Yoga. While on vacation in Cairo, Egypt, Crowley reportedly had a mystical experience involving a voice that dictated The Book of the Law, the central text of Thelemic religious philosophy. According to Crowley, what did the voice call itself?