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Ambrose Bierce

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Bulgaria's Independence Recognized

Bulgaria was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire in 1396, but Turkish rule was often oppressive, and rebellions were frequent. In 1908, as the revolution in Turkey gained momentum, Prince Ferdinand declared Bulgaria an independent state and named himself czar. Bulgaria was victorious against Turkey in the first Balkan War but became involved in numerous other conflicts due to its territorial claims over what country?

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The Ladder of Divine Ascent

One of the most widely read books among Eastern Orthodox Christians, The Ladder of Divine Ascent was composed by Christian monk John Climacus around 600 CE and is addressed to members of Christian monastic movements. The work is divided into 30 parts, or "steps,” that describe how to bring one's soul closer to God, as if climbing a ladder. The book discusses virtues, vices, and the means by which to attain the highest degree of religious perfection. What do the 30 steps represent?

Born on a day like today

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Ben Chifley

Chifley was the 16th prime Minister of Australia and one of its most influential leaders. His career in politics began with his participation in the founding of the Australian engine drivers' union and his active membership in the Labor Party. Throughout the Great Depression and WWII, he oversaw numerous reforms in the fields of immigration, citizenship, social security, and intelligence gathering. One of the few successful referenda to modify what document took place during his term?

Last updated on Tuesday, 22nd September 2009

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