Freeze-drying is a dehydration process typically used to preserve perishable material or make it more convenient to transport. The process involves freezing a substance, reducing the surrounding pressure, and adding enough heat to allow the frozen water in the material to sublimate, or change directly from the solid to gas state. Properly sealed freeze-dried substances can be stored at room temperature for years without spoiling. How is freeze-drying often used by pharmaceutical companies?
Back in the day
Marbury v. Madison was a landmark case in US law that resulted in the first decision by the Supreme Court to declare unconstitutional and void an act passed by Congress. It established the basis for the exercise of judicial review of federal statutes by the US Supreme Court, thus rendering the court an equal partner among the three branches of the US federal government. How many justices participated in this decision?
Born on a day like today
Charles V was the influential 16th-century European monarch who held the thrones of both the Holy Roman Empire and Spain for approximately 40 years. He played a key role in fighting Protestantism during the Reformation and was later an ardent supporter of the Counter Reformation. He also fought several wars against France and the Ottoman Empire before abdicating in 1556. What saying about Paris originated with him?