The English Civil War, which began in 1642, consisted of a series of conflicts between Parliamentarians and the Royalist supporters of King Charles I and, later, King Charles II. Ending with Parliamentary victory in 1651, the conflicts left England, Scotland, and Ireland without a monarch. After the execution of Charles I and the exile of Charles II, the monarchy was replaced with a republican commonwealth government led by Oliver Cromwell. When was Charles II restored to the throne?
Back in the day
Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin was a seminal film in cinematic history and was based on the real-life 1905 uprising aboard the Russian battleship Potemkin. Eisenstein deliberately wrote the film as a revolutionary propaganda piece and used it to test his theories of "montage," a form of movie collage consisting of a series of short shots edited into a coherent sequence. In the 1950s, Potemkin was named the greatest film of all time at what event?
Born on a day like today
Lang was a giant of the German Expressionist movement. Before fleeing Nazi Germany, he made two extraordinary films, Metropolis and M, that helped define the film noir and science fiction genres and continue to influence modern filmmaking. In the 1950s, Lang returned to Germany to make Indian Epic, now considered a masterpiece by many film scholars. What story about Lang is partly corroborated by the appointment book of Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels?