The Cathars were members of a Christian sect that flourished in France in the 12th and 13th centuries. Because most adherents believed in reincarnationâ€”as opposed to resurrectionâ€”as a way of reaching the pure spirit realm, the Roman Catholic Church regarded the sect as heretical and launched the Albigensian Crusade to crush the movement. In one account of a massacre of some 20,000 Cathars, one of the crusade's commanders is asked how to tell Cathars from Catholics. What was his famous reply?
Back in the day
The bombing of Cubana Flight 455 killed all 73 people on board, including several Cuban government officials. At that time, it constituted the most deadly act of airline terrorism ever carried out in the Western Hemisphere. An investigation uncovered evidence implicating anti-Castro Cuban exiles and members of the Venezuelan secret police in the plot. Four men were arrested: two received 20-year prison terms, one was acquitted, and another fled. How were the CIA and FBI linked to the attack?
Born on a day like today
Louis-Philippe was the last king to rule France, reigning from 1830 to 1848. During the July Revolution of 1830, he was made lieutenant general of the realm and was later chosen as king. At first, he was much loved and called the "citizen king," but his popularity suffered as his government came to be viewed as increasingly conservative and monarchical. After abdicating, Louis-Philippe fled to England. How did he get there?