" He who has a mistaken idea of life, will always have a mistaken idea of death. "
Leo Tolstoy

Back in the day


Henry IV of France Converts to Catholicism

Henry the IV of France was the first of the Bourbon kings of France, reigning from 1589 until his death. A Protestant, Henry was involved in the Wars of Religion before his accession to the throne. He then converted to Catholicism, allegedly explaining his pragmatic philosophy with the statement, "Paris is worth a mass." He signed the Edict of Nantes granting political rights to Protestants and ruled as one of the most popular French kings. Who assassinated him in 1610?




Misanthropy is a general dislike or distrust of the human species. Typically motivated by social alienation or feelings of contempt for society's prevailing characteristics, misanthropes express a dislike for humanity as a whole, but can have normal relationships with some individuals. Overt expressions of misanthropy can be attributed to characters throughout literature. What existentialist philosopher and writer famously wrote that "hell is other people" in his play No Exit?

Born on a day like today


Afonso I of Portugal

Afonso I was the first King of Portugal. He defeated his mother to take the throne, ruling first as a vassal of his cousin Alfonso VII of León but later securing Portuguese independence and gaining the title of king. He spent his life in almost ceaseless fighting against the kings of León and Castile. In 1143, Afonso placed his lands under papal protection and secured Castilian recognition of his title. After defeating his mother, Teresa of Leon, in 1128, Afonso sent her into exile where?

Last updated on Friday, 25th July 2008

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