Debt-ridden farmers, struck by the economic depression that followed the American Revolution, petitioned the Massachusetts state senate to halt foreclosure of mortgages on their property and imprisonment for debt. When the senate failed to undertake these reforms, armed rebels, led by Daniel Shays and other local leaders, forcibly closed a number of debtors' courts. The rebellion, suppressed in 1787, less than a year after it began, prompted the fledgling US government to make what changes?
Back in the day
Historians consider the Papal bull Unam sanctamâ€”which proclaimed that there is no salvation outside of the Churchâ€”to be one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy ever made. It arose from the Pope's feud with Philip the Fair of France, in which each attempted to prevent the other from receiving money from taxes, and it highlights the conflict between temporal and spiritual authority in the Middle Ages. How did Philip respond to the bull?
Born on a day like today
Maritain was an important 20th c French Catholic philosopher. Through the influence of LÃ©on Bloy, Maritain, who was born a Protestant, converted to the Roman Catholic faith. He wrote more than 60 books, expanding on the principles of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas, and was responsible for reviving the latterâ€˜s teachings for modern times. He urged Christian involvement in secular affairs, a view that greatly influenced members of the Second Vatican Council. Which Pope was his friend and mentor?