" Different men seek after happiness in different ways and by different means, and so make for themselves different modes of life and forms of government. "
Aristotle

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Pope Boniface VIII Issues Unam Sanctam

Historians consider the Papal bull Unam sanctam—which proclaimed that there is no salvation outside of the Church—to be one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy ever made. It arose from the Pope's feud with Philip the Fair of France, in which each attempted to prevent the other from receiving money from taxes, and it highlights the conflict between temporal and spiritual authority in the Middle Ages. How did Philip respond to the bull?

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Shay's Rebellion

Debt-ridden farmers, struck by the economic depression that followed the American Revolution, petitioned the Massachusetts state senate to halt foreclosure of mortgages on their property and imprisonment for debt. When the senate failed to undertake these reforms, armed rebels, led by Daniel Shays and other local leaders, forcibly closed a number of debtors' courts. The rebellion, suppressed in 1787, less than a year after it began, prompted the fledgling US government to make what changes?

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Jacques Maritain

Maritain was an important 20th c French Catholic philosopher. Through the influence of Léon Bloy, Maritain, who was born a Protestant, converted to the Roman Catholic faith. He wrote more than 60 books, expanding on the principles of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas, and was responsible for reviving the latter‘s teachings for modern times. He urged Christian involvement in secular affairs, a view that greatly influenced members of the Second Vatican Council. Which Pope was his friend and mentor?

Last updated on Sunday, 18th November 2007

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