In the 3rd century BCE, Hippocrates introduced his theory of Humoralism. It was based on the notion that 4 fluids, each corresponding to one of the 4 elements, permeate the human body and cause disease when not in balance. Theories regarding the 4 humorsâ€”blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegmâ€”expanded over the years, and in the 2nd century CE, Galen published a treatise which associated a specific temperament with each humor. What humor was thought to cause a melancholic disposition?
Back in the day
The Dominican Republic declared its independence from Haiti in a movement led by Juan Duarte and Pedro Santana. It adopted a presidential form of government, but Santana forced the constitutional assembly to include an article in the constitution that gave him dictatorial powers, allowing him to drive out his political opponents, including Duarte. In 1861, Santana restored the Dominican Republic to what country?
Born on a day like today
Sultan Suleiman I, or Suleiman the Magnificent, reigned from 1520 to 1566, during which time the Ottoman Empire reached the height of its power and prestige. Suleiman restructured the Ottoman legal system, a move which earned him the name Kanuni, or "the Lawgiver." At the time of his death, Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, Baghdad, many Balkan provinces, and most of N Africa were under the control of his empire. Why did Suleiman have his close boyhood friend, Ibrahim Pasha, executed?