The mandala, meaning circle or completion, is a ritualistic diagram that has spiritual significance in Hinduism and Buddhism. Representing a microcosm of the universe and the totality of existence, it serves as a collection point for gods and universal powers. Its symmetric geometric shapes draw the viewer's attention to a central meditative point. A Tibetan sand mandala is created over the course of days or weeks only to be swept away upon completion. What does this represent?
Back in the day
Edison helped design the kinetoscope, a precursor to the modern motion picture projector. It worked through a phenomenon known as "persistence of vision," in which a sequence of images is blended by the eye to create the illusion of motion. Because the work of so many others had gone into its invention, Edison never bothered to apply for an international copyright on the device, believing that it would not stand up in European courts. What effect did this have on the development of cinema?
Born on a day like today
Strong-willed and astute, Wilhelmina I enjoyed great popularity as queen of the Netherlands. She reigned for 50 years and guided her country through two world wars. Wilhelmina also had a keen understanding of business matters, and her investments made her one of the wealthiest women in the world and the first woman to accumulate a net worth in excess of a billion dollars. In 1948, Wilhelmina abdicated in favor of whom?