Caligula was the third emperor of Rome and ruled from 37 ACE to 41 ACE. After becoming emperor he became severely ill and, it is widely believed, went insane. His reign is considerably obscure because surviving historical sources relate anecdotes of his mad cruelty, not an actual account of his reign. What does survive is the picture of a depraved, hedonistic ruler who allegedly carried on an incestuous relationship with his sisters and contemplated appointing what to the Senate?
John Quincy Adams
Back in the day
The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during WW I. It was mounted by the Allies who wanted to open their supply routes to Russia, establish a new front, and draw Bulgaria and Greece into war on their side. The battle's long-term goal was capturing Constantinople, the Ottoman capital. The Allies fought the fierce and bloody campaign for several months but had to withdraw. The meteoric rise of what Turkish politician began with Gallipoli?
Born on a day like today
Copernicus was an astronomer, mathematician, and economist who developed the heliocentric theory of the universe that placed the Sun, not the Earth, at the center of our solar system and helped launch the scientific revolution. A corollary of Copernicanism is that scientific law need not be congruent with appearance; this contrasts with Aristotle's system, which places much more importance on the derivation of knowledge through the senses. What did Goethe write about Copernicus?