The Beta Israel, or "House of Israel," are Jews of Ethiopian origin. Long isolated from mainstream Judaism, they practice a form of the religion based on Jewish Scriptures and certain apocryphal books. In 1975, the Israeli rabbinate legally recognized them as Jews, and during the Ethiopian civil war, about 10,000 were airlifted to Israel in an effort to save them from persecution. A second airlift of more than 14,000 occurred in 1991. What were these secret operations called?
Back in the day
The Treaty of AncÃ³n ended Peru's involvement in the late 19th century War of the Pacific, fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. Victorious, Chile gained substantial mineral-rich territories, leaving Bolivia without access to the sea and annexing the former Peruvian province of TarapacÃ¡. The loss of the war remains an emotional issue for many Bolivians who attribute their country's problems to its landlocked condition. What novel technology was employed during the war?
Born on a day like today
Nanak was the founder of the Sikh religion and the first of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism. According to tradition, he made four great journeys to all parts of India, Arabia, and Persia. Nanak proclaimed monotheism, the provisional nature of organized religion, and direct realization of God through religious exercises and meditation; he opposed idolatry, ritual, an organized priesthood, and the caste system. What did Nanak hope to accomplish by instituting "the common meal?"